Internal medicine is a broad field of medicine primarily concerned with the treatment of adults. Internists prevent, diagnose, and treat a wide range of short-term and chronic conditions. Usually, they choose to subspecialize in specific parts of the body, allowing for specialized and directed care for particular concerns.

There are general internists who can treat various concerns, but those who subspecialize are trained to focus on any area that the patient is particularly having trouble with. Internal medicine doctors are trained to see the connection or interplay between all the systems in the human body. They are also the specialists to see if you may be suffering from multiple diseases, and if you are looking for disease prevention, as well as the diagnosis of chronic and complex illnesses.

At Kindred, we have several internal medicine doctors who can perform both general care and treat according to their subspecializations. Read on to learn more about the internal medicine services we have to offer.


A gastroenterologist specializes in gastrointestinal diseases, covering all organs in the digestive system from your esophagus, to your stomach, all the way down to your intestines. These highly trained physicians can expertly manage a wide range of gastrointestinal conditions, including but not limited to, acid reflux (GERD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, liver diseases such as hepatitis and cirrhosis, pancreatic disorders, gallbladder diseases, and gastrointestinal cancers. They are also able to manage disorders concerning the biliary system which consists of bile ducts, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. Gastroenterologists utilize various diagnostic procedures such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, imaging studies like CT scans and MRIs, and laboratory tests to assess digestive health and formulate personalized treatment plans.

Why see a gastroenterologist 

For gastrointestinal diseases

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • Celiac disease
  • Food intolerances and allergies
  • Ulcers
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Appendicitis
  • Diverticulitis
  • Colorectal polyps 

For liver diseases

  • Toxic and viral hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Fatty liver

For esophageal concerns 

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Esophagitis
  • Hiatal hernias
  • Difficulty swallowing

For gallbladder, biliary, and pancreatic diseases

  • Pancreatitis
  • Gallstones
  • Cholecystitis 

Symptoms to discuss with your gastroenterologist

  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Heartburn
  • Bloating
  • Gassiness
  • Abdominal pain 
  • Vomiting
  • Vomiting blood
  • Nausea
  • Indigestion
  • Jaundice
  • Rectal bleeding 
  • Unexplained weight loss or weight gain

Book a gastroenterology consult


A rheumatologist specializes in conditions that are related to inflammation of the bones, muscles, and joints. Rheumatologists possess expertise in evaluating symptoms such as joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and systemic manifestations of autoimmune diseases. They utilize a combination of diagnostic tests including blood work, imaging studies, and if necessary, joint aspiration, to accurately diagnose and create personalized treatment plans for their patients. Treatment strategies often involve a combination of medications, physical therapy, lifestyle modifications, and patient education. Rheumatologists play a crucial role in improving quality of life and preventing long-term complications associated with autoimmune and musculoskeletal disorders.

Why see a rheumatologist

For muscle conditions

  • Polymyositis
  • Rhabdomyolysis
  • Myopathies
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Myasthenia gravis

For autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

  • Lupus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Myositis
  • Scleroderma 
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Vasculitis 
  • Psoriasis 

For inherited or complex disorders

  • Osteoporosis 
  • Psoriatic arthritis 
  • Ankylosing spondylitis

Tendon problems

  • Tendinitis 
  • Tennis elbow
  • De Quervain’s tendinosis
  • Rotator cuff issues

For joint problems 

  • Gout
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Bursitis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis

Symptoms to discuss with your rheumatologist

  • Dry eyes
  • Dry mouth
  • Alopecia or hair loss
  • Dermatitis
  • Itching 
  • Muscle weakness
  • Swelling 
  • Stiffness
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Inflammation in lung lining
  • Skin rashes or lesions
  • Skin thickening
  • Photosensitivity
  • Butterfly rash
  • Recurrent oral ulcers

Book a rheumatology consult

Infectious Diseases

Infectious disease specialists specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These specialists play a crucial role in managing a wide range of infectious diseases, including but not limited to, influenza, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, malaria, Lyme disease, meningitis, pneumonia, and sexually transmitted infections. They are trained to identify the specific pathogens responsible for these diseases and develop tailored treatment plans, which may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal drugs, or other therapeutic interventions.

Why see an infectious diseases specialist 

  • Acute infections of unknown etiologies
  • Chronic infections that require constant maintenance and care, such as hepatitis C and HIV
  • Contagious viral infections such as uncomplicated cases of COVID-19 and flu that can be managed at home and require home isolation
  • Infections that involve the blood, bone, or an implanted prosthesis
  • Mosquito-borne or parasitic infections such as uncomplicated dengue cases or amoebiasis
  • Prophylaxis of health conditions that may occur when traveling to a tropical location
  • Infections that are resistant to common antibiotics (usually done in the hospital setting)
  • Acute infections caused by multiple different organisms (in the case of discharged patients, for continuity of care)
  • Other acute or chronic infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and prions

Symptoms to discuss with your infectious diseases specialist

  • Persistent fever of unknown origin
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Recurrent or severe infections
  • Chronic fatigue or malaise
  • Skin rashes or lesions with unclear etiology
  • Persistent diarrhea or gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing
  • Neurological symptoms suggestive of infection (e.g., severe headaches, confusion, seizures)
  • Exposure to infectious diseases in high-risk settings (e.g., healthcare facilities, travel to endemic regions)
  • Suspected or confirmed cases of sexually transmitted infections
  • Immunocompromised individuals experiencing unusual or severe infections

Book an infectious diseases consult


A cardiologist focuses on diagnosing and treating conditions related to the heart and blood vessels. These highly trained physicians possess expertise in evaluating cardiac symptoms, interpreting diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, and stress tests, and formulating comprehensive treatment plans tailored to individual patients. Cardiologists commonly manage conditions such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, and congenital heart defects. They may prescribe medications, recommend lifestyle modifications, perform procedures such as angiogram, angioplasty, or pacemaker implantation, and provide ongoing monitoring and care to optimize heart health and prevent cardiovascular complications. 

Why see a cardiologist

  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Heart failure
  • Arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms)
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Valvular heart disease (e.g., mitral valve prolapse, aortic stenosis)
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
  • Pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium)
  • Endocarditis (infection of the heart's inner lining)
  • Cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle)
  • Angina (chest pain or discomfort)
  • Heart murmurs
  • Palpitations (sensation of rapid or irregular heartbeat)
  • Syncope (fainting spells)

Symptoms to discuss with your cardiologist

  • High blood pressure
  • Chest pain
  • Unusual heart rate
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Blood vessel disease
  • Family history of cardiac concerns for preventive measures
  • Symptoms of arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)
  • Previously diagnosed but stable heart conditions
  • Cardiopulmonary clearance for procedures

Book a cardiology consult 


A nephrologist focuses on diagnosing and treating diseases related to the kidneys. These highly trained physicians possess expertise in managing a wide range of renal disorders, including acute and chronic kidney diseases, electrolyte imbalances, hypertension (high blood pressure) related to kidney function, kidney stones, glomerulonephritis, and autoimmune kidney diseases like lupus nephritis. Nephrologists utilize various diagnostic tools such as blood and urine tests, imaging studies, and kidney biopsies to assess kidney function and formulate personalized treatment plans. They may prescribe medications, recommend dietary and lifestyle modifications, suggest dialysis therapy for patients with end-stage kidney failure, and collaborate closely with other healthcare professionals, including urologists and transplant surgeons, to optimize patient care and improve kidney health.

Why see a nephrologist

  • Acute kidney injury (AKI)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
  • Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis)
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) related to kidney function
  • Electrolyte imbalances (e.g., hyperkalemia, hyponatremia)
  • Diabetes-related kidney complications (diabetic nephropathy)
  • Autoimmune kidney diseases (e.g., lupus nephritis)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affecting the kidneys
  • Renal artery stenosis
  • Renal tubular acidosis (RTA)
  • End-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Symptoms to discuss with your nephrologist

  • Swelling
  • Changes in urination (difficulty urinating or pain while urinating)
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Urinary symptoms like dribbling, incomplete, painful, frequent, or decreased urination
  • High creatinine
  • Electrolyte disturbances
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • Foamy or bubbly urine
  • Frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Swelling in the hands, feet, ankles, or face (edema)
  • Persistent high blood pressure
  • Difficulty concentrating or mental fog
  • Persistent itching
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
  • Loss of appetite or nausea
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Muscle cramps or twitching

Book a nephrology consult


A pulmonologist diagnoses and treats diseases and conditions related to the respiratory system. These highly trained physicians manage a wide range of respiratory disorders, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, tuberculosis, lung cancer, interstitial lung diseases, and sleep disorders such as sleep apnea. Pulmonologists utilize various diagnostic tools such as pulmonary function tests, imaging studies like chest X-rays and CT scans, bronchoscopy, and sleep studies to assess lung function and formulate personalized treatment plans. Treatment strategies often involve a combination of medications, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, and lifestyle modifications. 

Why see a pulmonologist 

  • Asthma
  • Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD)
  • Emphysema
  • Lung cancer
  • COVID-19
  • Pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis
  • Interstitial lung diseases (ILD)
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Sleep disorders (e.g., sleep apnea)
  • Chronic cough
  • Bronchitis
  • Pleural effusion
  • Respiratory infections (e.g., bronchitis, sinusitis)

Symptoms to discuss with your pulmonologist

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea), especially with exertion
  • Chronic cough lasting more than three weeks
  • Wheezing or whistling sound when breathing
  • Chest pain or tightness
  • Coughing up blood (hemoptysis)
  • Frequent respiratory infections
  • Persistent fatigue or weakness
  • Difficulty breathing while lying flat (orthopnea)
  • Rapid breathing (tachypnea)
  • Bluish discoloration of the lips or nails (cyanosis)
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fever or chills
  • Symptoms of sleep disorders such as excessive daytime sleepiness or loud snoring

Book a pulmonology consult


An endocrinologist’s concentration are disorders related to the endocrine system, which are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions. They manage conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disorders (such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism), adrenal gland disorders (such as Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome), pituitary gland disorders, reproductive hormone disorders (such as polycystic ovarian syndrome and infertility), and metabolic disorders (such as obesity and Metabolic syndrome). Endocrinologists utilize a combination of diagnostic tests, including blood work, imaging studies, and hormonal stimulation tests, to evaluate hormone levels and assess endocrine function. 

Why see an endocrinologist 

  • Diabetes mellitus (Type 1, Type 2, gestational diabetes)
  • Thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer)
  • Adrenal gland disorders (Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency)
  • Pituitary gland disorders (pituitary adenomas, hypopituitarism)
  • Parathyroid gland disorders (hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism)
  • Osteoporosis and other metabolic bone disorders
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
  • Infertility related to hormonal imbalances
  • Metabolic syndrome and obesity
  • Growth hormone disorders (growth hormone deficiency, acromegaly)
  • Reproductive hormone disorders (menopause, erectile dysfunction)
  • Lipid disorders (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
  • Disorders of puberty and sexual development
  • Endocrine-related tumors and cancers

Symptoms to discuss with your endocrinologist

  • Excessive and unexplained weight gain/loss
  • Excessive sweating and tremors
  • Numbness
  • Tingling sensations
  • Thyroid issues
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Persistent fatigue or weakness
  • Changes in appetite
  • Increased thirst and urination
  • Intolerance to heat or cold
  • Irregular menstrual cycles or changes in libido
  • Changes in bowel habits
  • Mood swings or irritability
  • Muscle weakness
  • Hair loss or changes in hair texture
  • Skin changes such as dryness, thinning, or excessive sweating
  • Difficulty sleeping or insomnia
  • Changes in vision
  • Swelling in the neck (enlarged thyroid gland)

Book an endocrinology consult 

General Internal Medicine

A general internist, often referred to as an internist or internal medicine physician, specializes in providing comprehensive primary care for adults. These highly trained physicians possess broad expertise in diagnosing, treating, and managing a wide range of acute and chronic medical conditions across various organ systems. General internists are skilled in preventive care, routine health screenings, and managing complex medical issues. They coordinate care for patients with multiple chronic illnesses, oversee medication management, and provide referrals to other specialists when necessary. 

Why see an internist 

  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Diabetes mellitus (Type 1, Type 2, gestational diabetes)
  • Hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol)
  • Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Gastrointestinal disorders (acid reflux, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease)
  • Infectious diseases (respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections)
  • Arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis)
  • Mental health conditions (depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder)
  • Thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism)
  • Cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease, heart failure)
  • Neurological disorders (migraines, neuropathy)
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Obesity and metabolic syndrome
  • Allergies and immunological disorders
  • Cancer screening and preventive care

Symptoms to discuss with your internist

  • Persistent fatigue or weakness
  • Unexplained weight loss or gain
  • Changes in appetite
  • Frequent headaches or migraines
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Chronic cough or respiratory symptoms
  • Fever, chills, or night sweats
  • Digestive problems such as abdominal pain, bloating, or diarrhea
  • Joint pain, stiffness, or swelling
  • Muscle aches or weakness
  • Changes in urinary frequency, urgency, or appearance
  • Mood swings, depression, or anxiety
  • Memory loss or cognitive changes
  • Skin changes such as rashes, lesions, or unusual growths

Book a general internal medicine consult

In conclusion, internal medicine doctors play a vital role in preventive care by providing comprehensive health assessments, routine screenings, and personalized interventions aimed at reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases and promoting overall wellness. Through regular check-ups, immunizations, lifestyle counseling, and early detection of health issues, internists help patients make informed decisions about their health and adopt behaviors that support long-term well-being.

By emphasizing preventive measures and proactive management of risk factors, internists empower individuals to take charge of their health, prevent future illnesses, and maintain a high quality of life. Their dedication to preventive care underscores the importance of a collaborative and patient-centered approach to healthcare, ultimately leading to healthier communities and improved health outcomes for individuals of all ages. Book internal medicine consults today on!

Last medically reviewed on April 25, 2024.