Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, or PCOS, is a common endocrine and hormonal disorder that affects millions of women worldwide. Together with its well-known physical manifestations like irregular periods, acne, and weight gain, PCOS has a profound impact on menstrual health and fertility. With this, Kindred is here to help you delve into the various ways PCOS can disrupt a woman's reproductive system and explore the challenges it poses for those hoping to conceive.

Understanding PCOS

Before we dive into the intricacies of how PCOS affects menstrual health and fertility, it is crucial to understand what PCOS is. PCOS is a complex hormonal disorder characterized by an array of symptoms and physical changes. While its exact cause remains uncertain, it is believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


What are the common symptoms of PCOS?

Irregular menstrual cycles

One of the primary symptoms of PCOS is irregular menstrual cycles. Women with PCOS often experience infrequent periods, unpredictable bleeding, or prolonged gaps between cycles. These irregularities can make it difficult to predict ovulation and, consequently, delay conception.


Ovulatory dysfunction

PCOS frequently disrupts the normal ovulation process, causing anovulation or irregular ovulation. Without regular ovulation, the release of a mature egg from the ovaries becomes erratic, reducing the chances of conception. However, it is important to note that having PCOS does not equate to infertility.

Cyst formation

Despite the name, not all women with PCOS have ovarian cysts. However, many do develop small, fluid-filled sacs on their ovaries. These cysts can contribute to hormonal imbalances, exacerbating the symptoms of PCOS, but are generally benign.

Increased levels of androgens

Androgens or higher than normal levels of male hormones may result in excess hair on the face and body, acne, or thinning scalp hair. 

Take note that if you have at least 2 of these symptoms, it is highly recommended for you to get tested for PCOS. 


Now, how does PCOS actually impact menstrual health?

Irregular periods

Irregular menstrual cycles are the biggest indication of PCOS. The hormonal imbalances associated with the condition disrupt the usual hormonal signaling that regulates the menstrual cycle. This can result in missed periods, long cycles, or unpredictable bleeding patterns.

Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding

In addition to irregularity, women with PCOS may experience heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding. This can be distressing and physically draining, further affecting their overall well-being.


Amenorrhea, the absence of menstruation for several months, is not uncommon in women with PCOS. Anovulation, a common issue in PCOS, can lead to extended periods without menstruation.

How does PCOS impact fertility?

Difficulty conceiving

PCOS is a leading cause of female infertility. Irregular ovulation or anovulation makes it challenging for women with PCOS to conceive naturally. Many may require fertility treatments to stimulate ovulation.

Hormonal imbalances

PCOS disrupts the delicate balance of reproductive hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH). High levels of androgens, often seen in PCOS, can further complicate fertility by inhibiting ovulation and interfering with follicular development.

Risk of pregnancy complications

When women with PCOS do become pregnant, they face a higher risk of complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Proper medical monitoring and care are essential for a safe pregnancy.

But, how can people with PCOS manage these symptoms and what treatment options are available?

While PCOS can be challenging, there are several ways to manage its impact on menstrual health and fertility.

Lifestyle changes

Weight management through a balanced diet and regular exercise can help regulate menstrual cycles and improve fertility in overweight women with PCOS. Managing stress, getting adequate sleep, and reducing exposure to environmental toxins can also support menstrual health and fertility in women with PCOS.


Hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, can help regulate menstrual cycles and manage some PCOS symptoms. Make sure that you are getting the right medication by consulting with your healthcare provider! 

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a complex condition with far-reaching effects on a woman's body, particularly in terms of menstrual health and fertility. Irregular periods, anovulation, and hormonal imbalances are some of the primary challenges women with PCOS face when trying to conceive.

However, with early diagnosis and appropriate medical intervention, many women with PCOS can overcome these obstacles and achieve their dream of becoming parents. Awareness, education, and ongoing research are essential to unravel the mysteries of PCOS further and improve the lives of those affected by this common disorder.

Book an OBYGN consultation through mykindred.co today!

Last medically reviewed on September 11, 2023.